Category: Pharmacy Updates Published on Friday, 24 June 2011 21:19 Written by Admin
Last Updated on Friday, 24 June 2011 21:19
Category: Pharmacy Updates Published on Tuesday, 11 October 2011 22:10 Written by Admin
KUALA LUMPUR – Gara-gara kecuaian seorang ahli farmasi di Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), seorang warga emas berusia 64 tahun yang menghidap sejenis penyakit kulit terlantar di hospital selama 12 hari setelah dia mengambil sejenis ubat kanser dalam kuantiti yang berlebihan.
Mangsa, Wong Yee Lan yang menghidap penyakit psoriasis mendakwa, semuanya berpunca apabila ahli farmasi tersebut memberi arahan mengambil ubat tidak tepat selepas dia menerima rawatan sakit kulit pada 7 September tahun lalu di hospital berkenaan.
Menurut Yee Lan, ubat untuk merawat penyakit kulit tersebut sepatutnya dimakan enam kali seminggu tetapi dia telah diberi arahan supaya ubat itu dimakan sebanyak enam kali sehari.
“Saya disuruh makan ubat itu enam kali sehari dan saya menghabiskan dua paket ubat tersebut yang mengandungi 72 biji pil dalam masa 12 hari sahaja.
“Kesan ubat itu terlalu kuat sehingga menyebabkan saya mengalami kesukaran bernafas dan beberapa kali rebah ketika berjalan kerana pitam sehingga terpaksa dihantar ke klinik sebanyak empat kali.
“Selain itu, mata saya juga kerap berair dan sukar untuk membuka mata, bibir bengkak, rambut gugur dan sukar tidur,” dakwanya pada sidang akhbar di ibu pejabat Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (PGRM) di sini semalam.
Bimbang dengan keadaan dirinya yang semakin teruk, dia kemudian mendapatkan rawatan susulan di hospital yang sama pada 1 Oktober 2010 bagi mencari punca kesakitan yang dialami.
“Saya terpaksa dimasukkan ke wad selama 12 hari kerana keadaan kesihatan saya menjadi semakin teruk.
“Saya begitu terperanjat apabila doktor yang merawat memaklumkan bahawa saya telah mengambil dos ubat secara berlebihan,” katanya.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 11 October 2011 22:10
Category: Pharmacy Updates Published on Tuesday, 20 September 2011 07:45 Written by Admin
Last Updated on Tuesday, 20 September 2011 08:10
Category: Pharmacy Updates Published on Saturday, 20 August 2011 20:19 Written by Admin
Abstract and Introduction
Antibiotics and vaccines are undoubtedly among the most significant discoveries in human history. Their use has saved countless lives from once-lethal infections. Unfortunately, antibiotics are also the only drugs in which widespread use decreases their utility. In contrast to medications that alter human biochemical processes, such as the clotting cascade and heart rate, antibiotics are engaged in a war with an enemy that is fighting back. Bacteria alter themselves to resist the effects of antibiotics, allowing them to multiply and continue spreading disease. This issue has become one of the nation's most pressing health problems, and its magnitude is accelerating. In order to combat antibiotic resistance and preserve our miracle drugs, pharmacists must be knowledgeable about the issue and actively involved in the solution.
Increasing Antibiotic Resistance
According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), nearly 2 million people in the United States acquire bacterial infections during their hospital stay annually, and over 70% of the bacteria that cause these infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs normally used to treat them. These drug-resistant bacteria include not only well-known offenders such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) andPseudomonas aeruginosa, but also strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae that have developed resistance to all available beta-lactams. For some organisms, clinicians have been forced to turn to polymyxins, an older class of antibiotics that was previously abandoned, in lieu of the "safer" aminoglycosides.
Resistance in the community setting is just as concerning. In one national cohort, community-associated MRSA was the most common identified cause of skin infections among patients who visited emergency rooms.Common pathogens seen in the community setting such as Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae have become resistant to fluoroquinolones, agents that were considered first-line therapies for infections caused by these pathogens in the past.[5,6]
Possibly more unsettling than the increase in antibiotic resistance is the decrease in antibiotic research and development. As of 2009, no new classes of antibiotics were in late-stage development, and only 16 antibiotics are in late-stage development at all. Not all of these 16 agents will be approved, as evidenced by the fact that of the six that have undergone FDA review, only two were approved (telavancin and ceftaroline). The oxazolidinones (linezolid) in 2000 and the lipopeptides (daptomycin) in 2003 were the only novel systemic antibiotic classes developed since 1968.
There are many reasons for the lack of antibiotic development. Antibiotics are typically only taken for days at a time, which does not guarantee substantial profit for drug companies. When antibiotics are approved, the natural inclination of many practitioners is to reserve them for more resistant or serious infections, which ironically compounds the economic disincentive for further antibiotic development. Additionally, clinical trials for antibiotics are not easily conducted. As antibiotics must be given acutely for most infections, prior antimicrobial use significantly confounds any measurable benefit. Also, since multiple organisms can cause most infections, companies seeking approval for candidate antibiotics often must include other antibiotics in combination with the candidate drug in clinical trials, which may contribute to the therapeutic effect and make the effect of the candidate antibiotic difficult to measure. The difficulty in finding patients with infections caused by microorganisms of interest is another concern. This issue was recently demonstrated by a trial of linezolid (Zyvox-Pfizer, Inc.) in MRSA pneumonia, where ~1,200 patients were enrolled and treated to find ~400 that were eligible, and the number of patients screened was likely even higher. Antibiotics must be studied for each infection in which they are indicated, which presents the issue of small sample sizes since infections are not typically chronic or nearly as widespread as diseases such as hypertension.
Investigating clinical utility in the treatment of resistant bacteria is even more difficult to study. Enrolling patients in studies of new antibiotics who have organisms that are resistant to active controls is not ethical. This presents a true concern, since it is these resistant strains that require new options. New types of studies for alternative drug approval may be needed to increase the availability of antibiotics for these infections.
Last Updated on Saturday, 20 August 2011 20:19
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